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Zimbabwe Constitution 1980 Up to 17th Amendment

Constitution of Zimbabwe
As amended at the 14 September, 2005 (up to and including Amendment No. 17)
Deputy Chairman Law Development Commission Ministry of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs Block C New Government Office Complex Cnr Central Avenue/Third Street HARARE
Updated 22 September 2005
__________
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
Updated 22 September 2005
(No. 2)
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
The Constitution of Zimbabwe was published as a Schedule to the Zimbabwe
Constitution Order 1979 (S.I. 1979/1600 of the United Kingdom).
As at 14 September 2005, it has been amended by the following Acts—
Number and year Short title Date of commencement
27 of 1981 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment Act, 1981
10.6.81 25 of 1981 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 2) Act, 1981
31.7.81
1 of 1983 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 3) Act, 1983 (Sections 14 and 15) 22.4.83
(Remainder of Act) 1.9.83 4 of 1984 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 4) Act, 1984 27 4.84 4 of 1985 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 5) Act, 1985 5.4.85
15 of 1987 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 6) Act, 1987 21.9.87
23 of 1987 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 7) Act, 1987 (Sections 1 and 21) 20.11.87 (Remainder of Act) 31.12.87
4 of 1989 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 8) Act, 1989 31.3.89 31 of 1989 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 9) Act, 1989 (Section 22 (b), (d) and (e)) 11.5.90
(Remainder of Act) 27.3.90 15 of 1990 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 10) Act, 1990 3.8.90 30 of 1990 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 11) Act, 1990 17.4.91
4 of 1993 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 12) Act, 1993
(Sections 1 to 5 and 12) 1.11.93 (Section 9, re Defence Forces) 1.7.94 (Section 9, re Prison Service) 18.8.95 (Section 11, re Prison Service) 18.8.95 (Section 9, re Police Force) 1.10.95 (Sections 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, re Public Service) 10.3.96
9 of 1993 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 13) Act, 1993 5.11.93 14 of 1996 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 14) Act, 1996 6.12.96 10 of 1998 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 15) Act, 1998 30.6.1998
5 of 2000 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 16) Act, 2000 19.4.2000 5 of 2005 Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 17) Act, 2005
(Sections 2, 3, 4, 18, 20, 22) 14.9.2005 (Definition of “voter” in section 19(a) 14.9.2005 (Part I of the First Schedule) 14.9.2005 (Second Schedule) 14.9.2005
(Remainder of Act) Not Yet in Force
Draft 18 August, 2005

CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
CHAPTER I
THE REPUBLIC AND THE CONSTITUTION
Section
1.
The Republic.
2.
Public seal.
3.
Supreme law.
CHAPTER II
CITIZENSHIP
4.
Citizens of Zimbabwe on Independence.
5.
Citizenship by birth.
6.
Citizenship by descent.
7.
Citizenship by registration.
8.
[Repealed.]
9.
Powers of Parliament in relation to citizenship.
10.
Interpretation.
CHAPTER III THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS
11.
Preamble.
12.
Protection of right to life.
13.
Protection of right to personal liberty.
14.
Protection from slavery and forced labour.
15.
Protection from inhuman treatment.
16.
Protection from deprivation of property.
16A. Agricultural land acquired for resettlement.
16B. Agricultural land acquired for resettlement and other purposes.
17.
Protection from arbitrary search or entry.
18.
Provisions to secure protection of law.
19.
Protection of freedom of conscience.
20.
Protection of freedom of expression.
21.
Protection of freedom of assembly and association.
22.
Protection of freedom of movement.
23.
Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc.
24.
Enforcement of protective provisions.
25.
Savings in the event of public emergencies.
26.
Interpretation and other savings.
CHAPTER IV THE EXECUTIVE
PART 1
The President
27.
The President.
28.
Qualifications and election of President.
29.
Tenure of office of President.
30.
Presidential immunity.
31.
Acting President.
31A. Remuneration of President.
31B. President and former Presidents not to hold other offices.
Updated 22 September 2005
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
PART 2
Vice-Presidents, Ministers and Cabinet
31C. Vice-Presidents.
31D. Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
31E. Tenure of office of Vice-Presidents, Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
31F. Vote of no confidence in Government.
31G. Cabinet.
PART 3
Executive Functions
31H. Executive functions of President.
31I. Prerogative of mercy.
31J. Public emergencies.
31K. Extent to which exercise of President’s functions justiciable.
CHAPTER V PARLIAMENT
PART 1
Legislative Authority
32.
Legislative authority.
33.
Parliament.
PART 2
The Senate
34.
Composition of Senate
35.
Election of the President of Senate
36.
Tenure of office of the President and Deputy President of Senate
PART 3
Composition of Parliament, Speaker and Deputy Speaker and Parliamentary Legal Committee
38.
Composition of House of Assembly.
39.
Election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
40.
Tenure of office of Speaker and Deputy Speaker. 40A. Parliamentary Legal Committee. 40B. Functions of Parliamentary Legal Committee.
PART 4
General Matters Relating to Parliament
41.
Tenure of seats of members.
42.
Members sentenced to death or to imprisonment.
43.
Expulsion or suspension of members convicted of certain offences.
44.
Oath of loyalty.
45.
Remuneration of President of Senate and Speaker.
46.
President’s power to address and attend Parliament.
47.
Vice-Presidents, Ministers, Deputy Ministers, Provincial Governors and Attorney-General in Parliament.
48.
Clerk of Parliament and other staff thereof.
49.
Privileges of Parliament and members and officers thereof.
PART 5
Powers and Procedure of Parliament
50.
Legislative powers.
51.
Mode of exercising legislative powers.
52.
Alteration of the Constitution.
Updated 22 September 2005 - 2 -
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
53.
Enrolment of Acts.
54.
Quorum.
55.
Validity of proceedings.
56.
Voting.
57.
Standing Orders.
PART 6
Elections and Sessions
58.
Elections.
59.
Delimitation Commission.
60.
Delimitation of constituencies.
61.
Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.
62.
Sessions.
63.
Prorogation or dissolution.
CHAPTER VI [Repealed]
CHAPTER VII THE PUBLIC SERVICE
73.
Public Service.
74.
Public Service Commission.
75.
Functions of Public Service Commission.
76.
Attorney-General.
77.
Secretaries of Ministries, etc.
78.
Principal representatives of Zimbabwe abroad.
CHAPTER VIII
THE JUDICIARY
79.
Judicial authority. 79A. Judiciary. 79B. Independence of judiciary.
80.
Supreme Court.
81.
High Court and criminal jurisdiction of other courts.
82.
Qualifications of judges.
83.
Oath of office.
84.
Appointment of judges.
85.
Acting judges.
86.
Tenure of office of judges.
87.
Removal of judges from office.
88.
Remuneration of judges.
89.
Law to be administered.
90.
Judicial Service Commission.
91.
Functions of Judicial Service Commission.
92.
Persons presiding over special courts.
CHAPTER IX
THE POLICE FORCE
93.
Police Force and Commissioner of Police.
94.
Police Service Commission.
95.
Functions of Police Service Commission.
CHAPTER X
THE DEFENCE FORCES
96.
Defence Forces and command thereof.
Updated 22 September 2005 - 3 -
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
97.
Defence Forces Service Commission.
98.
Functions of Defence Forces Service Commission.
CHAPTER XA
THE PRISON SERVICE
99.
Prison Service and Commissioner of Prisons.
100.
Prison Service Commission. 100A. Functions of Prison Service Commission.
CHAPTER XI
FINANCE
101.
Consolidated Revenue Fund.
102.
Withdrawals from Consolidated Revenue Fund or other public fund.
103.
Authorization of expenditure from Consolidated Revenue Fund.
104.
Public debt.
105.
Comptroller and Auditor-General.
106.
Functions of Comptroller and Auditor-General.
CHAPTER XII
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
PART 1
General
107.
Ombudsman and Deputy Ombudsman.
108.
Functions of Ombudsman. 108A. Anti-Corruption Commission.
109.
General provisions as to Commissions, etc.
110.
Tenure of office of certain persons.
111.
Chiefs and Councils of Chiefs. 111A. Provincial, district or regional governors. 111B. Effect of international conventions, etc.
112.
Pensions.
PART 2
Interpretation
113.
Interpretation.
114.
Supplementary provisions.
SCHEDULE 1: Oaths and Affirmations.
SCHEDULE 2: Savings in the event of Public Emergencies.
SCHEDULE 3: Qualifications for Members of Parliament and Voters.
SCHEDULE 4: Procedure with Regard to Bills and Other Matters in Parliament.
SCHEDULE 5. [Repealed.]
SCHEDULE 6: Pensions.
SCHEDULE 7: Agricultural Land Gazetted On or Before the 8th July, 2005.
ANNEXURE : Transitional Provisions in Respect of Senatorial Elections.
Updated 22 September 2005 - 4 -
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
CHAPTER I
THE REPUBLIC AND THE CONSTITUTION
1 The Republic
Zimbabwe is a sovereign republic and shall be known as “the Republic of Zimbabwe”.
[Section as amended by section 2 of Act 30 of 1990 - Amendment No. 11]
2 Public seal
There shall be a public seal of Zimbabwe, showing the coat of arms of Zimbabwe with the inscription “Republic of Zimbabwe”, which shall be kept by the President. [Section as amended by section 3 of Act 30 of 1990 - Amendment No. 11]
3 Supreme law
This Constitution is the supreme law of Zimbabwe and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.
CHAPTER II
CITIZENSHIP
4 Citizens of Zimbabwe on Independence
A person who, immediately before the appointed day, was or was deemed to be a citizen by birth, descent or registration shall, on and after that day, be a citizen of Zimbabwe by birth, descent or registration, as the case may be.
5 Citizenship by birth
(1) A person born in Zimbabwe on or after the appointed day but before the date of commencement of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 14) Act, 1996, shall be a citizen of Zimbabwe by birth, unless—
(a)
at the time of his birth, his father—
(i) possesses such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to the envoy of a foreign sovereign power accredited to Zimbabwe; and
(ii) is not a citizen of Zimbabwe;
or
(b)
at the time of his birth—
(i)
his father is an enemy alien; and
(ii)
his mother is interned in a place set aside for the internment of enemy aliens or the birth occurs in a
place then under occupation by the enemy;
or
(c)
at the time of his birth, his father or, in the case of a child born out of wedlock, his mother is residing in Zimbabwe in contravention of the provisions of any law:
Provided that, if subsequent to his birth his father or mother, as the case may be, is accepted for permanent residence in Zimbabwe under any law in force in Zimbabwe, he shall be a citizen of Zimbabwe by birth; or
(d)
at the time of his birth, his father or, in the case of a child born out of wedlock, his mother is—
(i)
not a citizen of Zimbabwe; and
(ii)
not ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe.
[Subsection as amended by section 2 of Act No. 14 of 1996 -Amendment No. 14]
(2)
A person born outside Zimbabwe on or after the appointed day but before the date of commencement of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 14) Act, 1996, shall be a citizen of Zimbabwe by birth if—
(a)
his father or, in the case of a child born out of wedlock, his mother is at the time of his birth—
(i) a citizen of Zimbabwe and resident outside Zimbabwe by reason of the service of his father or his mother, as the case may be, under the Government; or
(ii) lawfully ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe;
and
(b)
his birth is registered in accordance with the law relating to the registration of births.
[Subsection as amended by section 2 of Act No. 14 of 1996 -Amendment No. 14]
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CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
(3)
A person born in Zimbabwe on or after the date of commencement of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 14) Act, 1996, shall be a citizen of Zimbabwe by birth if at the time of his birth his father or his mother is a citizen of Zimbabwe.
[Subsection inserted by section 2 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
(4) A person born outside Zimbabwe on or after the date of commencement of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 14) Act, 1996, shall be a citizen of Zimbabwe by birth if—
(a)
at the time of his birth his mother or his father is a citizen of Zimbabwe and lawfully ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe or resident outside Zimbabwe by reason of his or her service under the Government; and
(b)
his birth is registered in accordance with the law relating to the registration of births.
[Subsection inserted by section 2 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
6 Citizenship by descent
Save as is otherwise provided by section 5(2) or (4), a person born outside Zimbabwe on or after the appointed day shall be a citizen of Zimbabwe by descent if—
(a)
his father or his mother is at the time of his birth a citizen of Zimbabwe otherwise than by descent; and
(b)
his birth is registered in accordance with the law relating to the registration of births.
[Section as amended by sections 3 and 15 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
7 Citizenship by registration
(1)
.…. [Subsection repealed by section 4 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
(2)
Any woman who—
(a)
is, on the appointed day, married to a person who—
(i)
is, on the appointed day, a citizen of Zimbabwe by virtue of the provisions of section 4; or
(ii)
after the appointed day but before the date of commencement of the Constitution of Zimbabwe
Amendment (No. 14) Act, 1996, becomes a citizen of Zimbabwe while the marriage still subsists; [Subparagraph as amended by section 4 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
or
(b) prior to the appointed day, was married to a person who—
(i)
is, on the appointed day, a citizen of Zimbabwe by virtue of the provisions of section 4; or
(ii)
having died before the appointed day, would, but for his death, have been a citizen of Zimbabwe by
virtue of the provisions of section 4;
or
(c) on or after the appointed day but before the date of commencement of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 14) Act, 1996, marries a person who is a citizen of Zimbabwe or who becomes a citizen of Zimbabwe while the marriage still subsists;
[Paragraph as amended by section 4 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
shall be entitled, upon making application in such manner as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament, to be registered as a citizen of Zimbabwe.
(3)
Any person, one of whose parents is a citizen of Zimbabwe at the date of his application, shall be entitled, upon making application in such manner as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament, to be registered as a citizen of Zimbabwe:
Provided that, if the person is not of full age and capacity, the application shall be made on his behalf by his responsible parent or by his guardian or other lawful representative.
(4)
A person adopted on or after the appointed day by order made under the law relating to the adoption of children who was not, at the date of the order, a citizen of Zimbabwe shall become a citizen of Zimbabwe on the date of the order if the adopter or, in the case of a joint adoption, the male adopter was, at the date of the order, a citizen of Zimbabwe, and such adopted person shall be regarded as a citizen of Zimbabwe by registration.
(5)
The registration as a citizen of Zimbabwe of a person referred to in subsection (2) or (3) who is of full age shall not be effected unless and until the person has taken and subscribed the oath of loyalty in the form set out in Schedule 1, and such person shall be registered and become a citizen of Zimbabwe by registration on the date he takes and subscribes the oath of loyalty.
[Subsection as amended by section 15 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
(6)
...
[Subsection repealed by section 4 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
(7)
In subsection (3), “responsible parent”, in relation to a child, means—
Updated 22 September 2005 - 6 -
CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
(a)
if the father is dead or the mother has been given custody of the child by order of a court or has custody of the child by virtue of the provisions of a law relating to the guardianship of children or the child is born out of wedlock, the mother of the child;
[Paragraph as amended by section 15 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
(b)
in any other case, the father of the child.
(8)
For the purposes of this section, a person shall be regarded as—
(a)
of full age if he has attained the age of majority or if, being under that age, he is or has been married; and
(b)
of full capacity if he is not of unsound mind.
8 Dual citizenship
[Section repealed by section 2 of Act 1 of 1983 - Amendment No. 3]
9 Powers of Parliament in relation to citizenship
Notwithstanding the provisions of this Chapter, an Act of Parliament may make provision in respect of citizenship and, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, may provide for—
(a)
the acquisition of citizenship of Zimbabwe by persons who are not eligible or who are no longer eligible to become citizens of Zimbabwe under this Chapter;
(b)
the circumstances in which a person may cease to be a citizen of Zimbabwe;
(c)
the deprivation of any person of his citizenship of Zimbabwe;
(d)
the renunciation by any person of his citizenship of Zimbabwe:
Provided that no such law shall provide for the cessation by, or deprivation of, any person of his citizenship of Zimbabwe where such person is a citizen thereof by birth except on the grounds that he is or has become a citizen of some other country.
[Section as substituted by section 3 of Act 1 of 1983 - Amendment No. 3]
10 Interpretation
(1) In this Chapter, “child” means a legitimate child and “father” shall be construed accordingly.
(2) For the purpose of this Chapter, a person born aboard a registered ship or aircraft, or aboard an unregistered ship or aircraft of the government of any country, shall be deemed to have been born in the place at which the ship or aircraft was registered or, as the case may be, in that country.
(3)
For the purposes of this Chapter, a person shall be regarded as—
(a)
born out of wedlock if—
(i)
his parents were not married to each other at the time of his conception or birth and have not subsequently married each other; and
(ii)
he has not been adopted by order made under any law relating to the adoption of children in terms of which his status becomes that of a lawful child of the person adopting him;
(b)
born in wedlock if—
(i)
his parents were married to each other at the time of his conception or birth, or have subsequently married each other; or
(ii)
his parents were not married to each other or have not married each other as provided in subparagraph (i), but he has been adopted by order made under any law relating to the adoption of children in terms of which his status becomes that of a lawful child of the person adopting him;
and, for the purpose of determining whether or not such a person’s parents were or have been married to each other, a putative or voidable marriage shall be regarded as a valid marriage. [Subsection inserted by section 5 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
CHAPTER III
THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS
11 Preamble
Whereas persons in Zimbabwe are entitled, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual specified in this Chapter, and whereas it is the duty of every person to respect and abide by the Constitution and the laws of Zimbabwe, the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations on that protection as are contained herein, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any person does not prejudice the public interest or the rights and freedoms of other persons.
[Section as substituted by section 6 of Act No. 14 of 1996 - Amendment No. 14]
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CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
12 Protection of right to life
(1)
No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted.
(2)
A person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of subsection (1) if he dies as the result of the use, to such extent and in such circumstances as are permitted by law, of such force as is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of the case—
(a)
for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property;
(b)
in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;
(c)
for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny or of dispersing an unlawful gathering; or
(d)
in order to prevent the commission by that person of a criminal offence; or if he dies as the result of a lawful act of war.
(3)
It shall be sufficient justification for the purposes of subsection (2) in any case to which that subsection applies if it is shown that the force used did not exceed that which might lawfully have been used in the circumstances of that case under the law in force immediately before the appointed day.
13 Protection of right to personal liberty
(1)
No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save as may be authorized by law in any of the cases specified in subsection (2).
(2)
The cases referred to in subsection (1) are where a person is deprived of his personal liberty as may be authorized by law—
(a)
in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a criminal charge or in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether in Zimbabwe or elsewhere, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted;
(b)
in execution of the order of a court punishing him for contempt of that court or of another court or tribunal
or in execution of the order of the Senate or the House of Assembly punishing him for a contempt; [Paragraph as amended by section 26 of Act 31 of 1989 Amendment 9 – and by section 23 of Act 5 of 2005 - Amendment No. 17]
(c) in execution of the order of a court made in order to secure the fulfilment of an obligation imposed on him
by law;
[Paragraph as amended by section 4 of Act 30 of 1990 - Amendment No. 11]
(d) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court or an officer of a court or before the Senate or the House of Assembly in execution of the order of the Senate or the House of Assembly;
[Paragraph as amended by section 26 of Act 31 of 1989 - Amendment No. 9 and by section 9 of Act 15 of 1990 - Amendment No.10 and by section 23 of Act 5 of 2005 - Amendment No. 17]
(e)
upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence;
(f)
in execution of the order of a court or with the consent of his parent or guardian, for the purposes of his education or welfare during a period beginning before he attains the age of twenty-one years and ending not later than the date when he attains the age of twenty-three years;
(g)
for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease;
(h)
if he is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his care, treatment or rehabilitation or the protection of the community; or
(i)
for the purpose of preventing his unlawful entry into Zimbabwe or for the purpose of effecting his expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal from Zimbabwe or the taking of proceedings relating thereto.
(3)
Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention and shall be permitted at his own expense to obtain and instruct without delay a legal representative of his own choice and hold communication with him.
(4)
Any person who is arrested or detained—
(a)
for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court or an officer of a court; or
(b)
upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence; and who is not released, shall be brought without undue delay before a court; and if any person arrested or detained upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit a criminal offence is not tried within a reasonable time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial.
(5)
Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation therefor from that other person or from any person or authority on whose behalf or in the course of whose employment that other person was acting:
Provided that—
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CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE
(a)
any judicial officer acting in his judicial capacity reasonably and in good faith; or
(b)
any other public officer, or person assisting such public officer, acting reasonably and in good faith and
without culpable ignorance or negligence; may be protected by law from liability for such compensation.
14 Protection from slavery and forced labour
(1)
No person shall be held in slavery or servitude or required to perform forced labour.
(2)
For the purposes of subsection (1), “forced labour” does not include—
(a)
any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b)
labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court—
(i)
is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance or management of the place at which he is detained; or
(ii)
is reasonably required for the purposes referred to in section 13(2)(f) or (h);
(c)
any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or any labour required of any person by virtue of a written law in place of service as a member of such force;
(d)
any labour required by way of parental discipline; or
(e)
any labour required by virtue of a written law during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or disaster that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a

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